Just like ordinary unicycle, self balancing unicycle uses almost the same principle to keep standing, but there is also different. Self balancing electric unicycle system is more complex and more advanced.
The principle of the self balancing unicycle is as follows. On the one hand, it is because people can adjust the center of gravity and adjust the direction of moving forward. The unicycle direction changes due to inertia to balance the gravity moment. On the other hand, the high-speed rotating wheel has a larger angular momentum, and angular momentum can resist external torque, which is like a gyroscope keeping standing. In college physics, this phenomenon is called precession, and autobiography can put outside the direction of the rotating 90 degrees. Here is to turn the wheel side torque into the bicycle torque, so if you let it go suddenly, the bibcock will more towards one side. To prevent this phenomenon, you need to use your own center of gravity offset to balance the torque.
Self balancing unicycle has adopted inverted pendulum system and the principle of gyroscope. Inverted pendulum system controls electric wheelbarrow, forward and backward, and gyroscope system controls dynamic stable equilibrium. Inverted pendulum system is an important branch of control system. In fact, it can be interpreted under the control of computer, through analyzing the system of state parameters in real time, making the system in the horizontal or vertical displacement and angle offset control within the allowed range, to make the system balance. As the principle of gyroscope, the axis rotation direction of a rotating object will not change if it is not affected by external force. This principle is used when riding the bicycle. When the wheel turns faster, it is not easy to fall as there is a force in axle. The two systems can coordinate with each other to guarantee the stability of the balance of the electric unicycle.
On this basis, the self balancing electric unicycle is improved, driven by motor, using gyroscope and drive control circuit to keep standing. Leaning your body can start moving. Speed is controlled by the tilt of the body. To accelerate the speed, you can lean forward, and leaning backward means deceleration.